Thermoelectric module is an array of many pairs of P-Type and N-Type solid state semiconductors elements . The p-type is heavily doped with positive current carriers( Holes) and the N-types doped with negative current carriers (electrons).
The elements are then connected to form an array consisting of several pairs of p and N elements electrically connected in series and thermally in parallel to achieve maximum electrical conduction and minimum thermal conductivity. Then two ceramic substrate is added on top and bottom of the array. Figure (1) shows the construction of one pair of P and N type materials.
Thermoelectric Generator Modules
Thermoelectric generator modules are constructed based on Seebeck effect which was discovered by the German scientist Seebeck in 1921,Seebeck discovered that when a temperature different is maintained between two ends of two dissimilar metal wires by heating one end, a direct electrical current will flow between the other two ends if a meter or a load is connected between them.
Later on and with the advancement in semiconductor materials and because using metal wires produce very low voltage, semiconductor elements of N-type and P-Type are used in an array to form generator module and as shown by figure (2) below.
How to Select the Right Thermoelectric Generator Module
Usually thermoelectric generators are sold complete with all its components but if you are interested to buy the module separately to build your own thermoelectric generator , you need to specify the followings in order to select the most suitable module for your project.
1.Desired electrical out put power in watts.
- The value of maximum out put voltage
- temperatures of the hot side and cold side
Then check the manufacturer specifications of the module and make sure that they are capable of providing the required rated out put power and voltage.
Where thermoelectric generator modules are used
Generator modules are used in low power consumer equipment, thermoelectric generators are used supply power while camping , mountaineering, fishing , remote control sights and for emergency in case of mains power cut. They are reliable, silent, maintenance free and durable.
Recently high power modules have been developed to supply power out of 25 KW and others with various power rating suitable to be used to construct waste heat thermoelectric generators for power plants, gas , oil and mining sites. Some modules can be used for aeronautical , marine vessels and automobiles.
Lately micro modules are developed to be used as power source for wearable electrons such as intelligent watches, pacemakers, miniature wireless and sensors.
Priced list of many thermoelectric modules are included in page STORE above. To read actual reviews of people who purchased the generators, please click on any of them.
Thermoelectric Cooler Modules
Thermoelectric coolers are designed in accordance with the Peltier effect is discovered by the French physicist Jean Charles Athanase Peltier, in 1834. He found that when a current is made to flow through a junction between two conductors of two dissimilar metals, heat may be generated (or removed) at the junction of them, the amount of heat produced is proportional to the input applied voltage. It is the reverse of Seebeck effect. Present thermoelectric coolers are produced as shown in Figure (2) above but replacing the Amps meter with a dc power supply, the lower face become hot while the upper becomes cold. The value of cold and hot temperatures depend on the type of module and value of the source D.C voltage.
Where to Use Thermoelectric Cooler Modules
Thermoelectric cooler modules are used in medical, laboratory, aerospace, semiconductor, telecom, laser diodes, industrial, and consumer fields such as food, beverages, beer , wine coolers, for picnic, fishing, camping and mountaineering, for precision temperature control systems, computers and medical equipments.They are more superior than conventional compressor type coolers although they have lower efficiency, some of their advantages are: they have no moving parts so extremely quite and maintenance free, they are small and light weight and contain no toxic substances, they can easily be used for cooling and heating by reversing current flow. Priced list of many thermoelectric modules are listed in the STORE page above. for more information and reviews of people who purchased them can be found when you click on each of them.
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