Design and production of all thermoelectric coolers is based on the discovery in 1834 by French clockmaker Jean Charles Peltier which state that when an electric source is supplies across the two open ends of two dissimilar metal wire ,one end of the wire become hot and the other cold and the temperature gradient between the two ends depends on the value of the applied current or voltage , this means that the above phenomena could be used to provide heating or cooling. This discovery paved the road to extensive studies and research in this field . It was soon discovered that using two metal wires and even many pairs of metal wires was not practical as it produced very low efficiency and poor heating or cooling.
During the second half of the past century and with the rapid advancement and research in many semiconductor materials , it became possible to use a P-N couple to produce coolers with efficiencies reaching about 8%.
Continuous research led to the production of more practical and lower priced thermoelectric coolers by using many P-N pairs connected in series to manufacture various types of coolers having different cooling capacities and was possible to develop a cooler with temperature of about 20C below ambient temperature using 12/24 volts battery supply in mobile remote locations with possibility of using normal A.C mains supply either 110Volts of 220 Volts.
Thermoelectric Cooler (TEC) Construction
TEC Module consist of many pairs of P and N semiconductors connected in series . Two ceramic plates are fixed on top and bottom of the module. If higher capacity cooler is required, it is possible to increase the number of P/N pairs within each module which increase the cost of the cooler but gives a higher cooling .
Advantages of Thermoelectric Coolers
- Light in weight and small volume.
- Easy to carry and move which make them suitable for use in mobile situations.
- Very reliable and require no or little maintenance.
- Temperature control can be achieved accurately.
- Has a long life , mean time between failure about 100,000 hours.
- Easily managed to get the rated cooling temperature by varying the input voltage.
Where to Use TE Coolers
- They are well suited for use while travelling to keep food ,wine and beverages.
- Very useful when camping, mountaineering and in picnics.
- In remote sites such as remote communication stations, beacons and telemetry sites .
- cooling electronic components and various small instruments.
- TE coolers are also used to replace heat sinks for microprocessors.
- used for the synthesis of DNA.
- TE Coolers are used in precise laser applications.
- Used in Photon detectors and precision type digital cameras.
- Can be used in computers to cool components in order to keep temperature within the allowed limits.
- In fiber optics to stabilize the wavelength of those devices.
More details about thermoelectric coolers is provided at Store page including priced list of the most popular and highly rated coolers for consumer use . Reviews of buyers are also included.
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